What is it?
Typhoid is a bacterial infection that is spread via contaminated food and water. It is a highly contagious disease that affects approximately 18 million cases a year with around 400,000 of these cases resulting in death.
Countries at risk…
Countries at risk Due to the way in which the disease is spread, typhoid is mainly found in countries where sanitation levels are poor and there is a limited supply to clean water. The disease is widespread in much of the world including Africa, South East Asia, Central Asia and Central & South America.
Our recommended vaccines for the most common travel destinations outside of Europe includes Hepatitis A, Typhoid and Diphtheria, Tetanus and Polio (DTP) vaccines. For travellers who are visiting the developing world on a regular basis or for prolonged periods of time, we would recommend considering hepatitis B vaccine. Cholera is worth considering for travellers visiting rural areas of developing countries. The vaccine against cholera (Dukoral) also reduces the risk of the most common form of traveller’s diarrhoea caused by E coli. Dukoral is an oral vaccine given in two doses one week apart.
Only drink from a sealed water bottle or boiled water. Avoid ice and salad that has been washed with tap water. Only eat fruit that can be peeled and avoid uncooked food. Ensure that food is freshly cooked and piping hot.
Signs and symptoms
The most common symptoms of typhoid include a high fever, stomach pain, headache and constipation or diarrhoea. If the symptoms are not treated there is a possibility for the them to become worse and lead to a higher risk of the disease being fatal.
Travellers travelling to at risk countries are advised to receive a typhoid vaccination. The vaccination can either be given orally (a course of 3 capsules) or an injection. The oral typhoid vaccination is approximately 80% the effectiveness of the injection and is advised for people who are unable to receive the injection. The typhoid injection is effective for up to 3 years.
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